Nile Agreements

While Egypt is heavily dependent on the Nile, there are factors that can lead to conflicts over the distribution of the Nile`s water supply. Egypt, for example, has such a dependent agricultural economy. In addition, Egypt is already dependent on virtual water imports, a strategy that could lead Egypt to attempt future water conflicts. [4] Ethiopia`s water flows supply about 86 per cent of the Nile`s waters. Egypt has historically threatened Ethiopia and Tanzania to wage war on the Nile. Egypt army Somali separatist rebels in Ethiopia during and since the Somali invasion of Ethiopia in the 1970s. [5] Over the years, the states concerned have concluded agreements and treaties to control conflicts. These differences on the use of the Nile are not new and indeed have a long history, as these countries are heavily dependent on the waters of the Nile. In 1929, an agreement was reached between Egypt and Great Britain on the use of Nile waters – Britain represented its colonies in the Nile basin. [1] The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty dealt with many issues concerning the Nile and its tributaries. The fact that it has granted Egypt an annual allocation of 48 billion cubic metres of water and Sudan 4 billion cubic metres, on an estimated average annual yield of 84 billion cubic metres, is particularly important for the current debate. In addition, the 1929 agreement granted Egypt a veto over construction projects on the Nile or one of its tributaries in order to minimize interference in the flow of water into the Nile.

These bilateral agreements have completely ignored the needs of other coastal countries, including Ethiopia, which supplies between 70 and 80 per cent of the Nile`s waters. As a result, none of the other countries in the Nile basin ever approved the agreement. In the past, Egypt has taken an aggressive approach to the Nile River. Cairo regards the Nile as a matter of national security and the declarations continue to contain threats of military measures against Ethiopia if it intervenes in the river as stipulated in the agreements signed in 1929 and 1959. I say that the strength of the agreements made in modern times and Egypt`s threats to use military force are questionable for two reasons. First, the former colonies are now independent nations and should be part of the negotiations for a new agreement. Second, environmental conditions have changed: rainfall is becoming more frequent and droughts are getting longer. These developments mean that Egypt can no longer persist in the failure of the old agreements to be affected. Over the years, mainly because the population of other countries in the Nile basin has increased and these countries have developed the capacity to harvest the waters of the Nile more efficiently for national development, differences have arisen over the fact that Egypt has insisted that the water rights acquired by the 1929 and 1959 agreements (collectively called The Nile Water Agreements) , and that no construction projects are being carried out on the Nile. River or one of its tributaries without prior permission from Cairo.

Indeed, several Egyptian leaders have threatened to go to war to protect these „acquired rights”. Upstream riparian countries such as Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia have argued that they are not bound by these agreements because they were never left. Indeed, shortly after Britain`s independence in 1961, the new leader of Tanganjia, Julius Nyerere (now Tanzania, after unification with Zanzibar in 1964), argued that the Nile water agreements had shown leniency to his country and other countries upstream of Egypt, forcing them to submit their national development plans to control and monitor Cairo. , and that such an approach to public policy was not compatible with the country`s status as a sovereign state.